단지 2 가지 가정으로 설명되는 수많은 미스테리들.
지구상에 존재하는 25 가지 미스테리들은 간단히 설명되어지고, 대답되어지며, 상호 관계를 가지고 있다. 다음의 6 장에서는 25 가지 주제들 중의 하나인, 대양 해구, 지층과 화석들, 석회암, 얼어붙은 매머드, 혜성들, 마지막으로 소행성과 유성들을 각각 자세히 살펴볼 것이다. 각 장에서는 (각 현상들에 대한) 기존의 모든 선도적 이론들과 수판이론을 비교할 것이고, 수판이론과 홍수에 의한 파괴에 대한 놀랄만한 새로운 차원을 추가할 것이다.
당신이 이 장을 읽었던 것처럼, 이 이론에 의한 모든 설명과 결과들은, 단지 2 가지의 가정(103 페이지)과 물리적 법칙의 결과였다는 것을 명심하라.
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그림 67 : 사건들의 순서. 위에 표시한 홍수의 결과들이 정확한 순서대로 나열되었다 하더라도, 각 단계들은 다른 시간 척도를 가지고 있다. 빨간색으로 보여지는 각 결과는 다음 장의 주제들이다.
*한국창조과학회 자료실/노아의 홍수/홍수지질학
*한국창조과학회 자료실/노아의 홍수/격변적 지층형성
*한국창조과학회 자료실/노아의 홍수/그랜드 캐년에 있는 많은 자료들을 참조하세요
References and Notes
1. Plate tectonics, as initially proposed, had 6-8 plates. This number has grown as followers of the theory applied it to specific regions of the earth and found problems with the theory. Although textbooks usually mention only about a dozen plates, the theory now requires more than 100, most of them small.
This is reminiscent of epicycles, used from 150-1543 A.D. to explain planetary motion. Ptolemy explained that planets revolved about the earth on epicycles-wheels that carried planets and rode on the circumference of other wheels. As more was learned about planetary motion, more epicycles were required to preserve Ptolemy’s geocentric theory. Of course, any theory can appear to explain facts if the theory has enough variables (adjustable parameters).
Both the plate tectonic theory and the hydroplate theory claim plates have moved over the globe. The plate tectonic theory says plates move, by an unknown mechanism, slowly and continuously for hundreds of millions of years. The hydroplate theory, using an understood mechanism, says three hydroplates moved rapidly at the end of a global flood. Upon collision, they fragmented into pieces which today are shifting slowly, but in jerks, toward equilibrium.
As historians of science know, old theories frequently accumulate many anomalies-discoveries that oppose the theory. These problems do not overthrow the old theory until a new theory comes along that can explain all that the old theory did plus the anomalies. [See Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970).] Plate tectonics is becoming more complex as new information is learned, a sign that 'epicycles” are with us again. This has caused a growing number of international scientists to announce that 'a lot of phenomena and processes are incompatible with this theory [plate tectonics] ... we must develop competitive hypotheses.” [A. Barto-Kyriakidis, editor, Critical Aspects of the Plate Tectonics Theory, Vol. I (Athens, Greece: Theophrastus Publications, 1990), p. v.]
2. W. Jason Morgan, 'Rises, Trenches, Great Faults, and Crustal B,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 73, No. 6, 15 March 1968, p. 1973.
3. Ken C. Macdonald and P. J. Fox, 'Overlapping Spreading Centers,” Nature, Vol. 302, 3 March 1983, pp. 55-58.
* Richard Monastersky, 'Mid-Atlantic Ridge Survey Hits Bull’s-Eye,” Science News, Vol. 135, 13 May 1989, p. 295.
4. Paul G. Silver and Nathalie J. Valette-Silver, 'Detection of Hydrothermal Precursors to Large Northern California Earthquakes,” Science, Vol. 257, 4 September 1992, pp. 1363-1368.
5. On 25 March 1998, the largest earthquake ever recorded on the ocean floor and the world’s largest earthquake since 1994 struck inside the Antarctic plate, 350 kilometers from the nearest plate boundary. [See Richard Monastersky, 'Great Earthquake Shakes Off Theories,” Science News, Vol. 154, 5 September 1998, p. 155.] Other powerful intraplate earthquakes were Lisbon, Portugal (1755), New Madrid, Missouri (1811, 1812), and Charleston, South Carolina (1886).
6. Richard Monastersky, 'Reservoir Linked to Deadly Quake in India,” Science News, Vol. 145, 9 April 1994, p. 229.
7. Mark D. Zoback, 'State of Stress and Crustal Deformation Along Weak Transform Faults,”Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 337, 15 October 1991, pp. 141-150.
8. Arthur D. Raff, 'The Magnetism of the Ocean Floor,” Scientific American, October 1961, pp.146-156.
9. R. S. Coe and M. Prevot, 'Evidence Suggesting Extremely Rapid Field Variations During a Geomagnetic Reversal,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 92, 1989, pp. 292-298.
* R. S. Coe, M. Prevot, and P. Camps, 'New Evidence for Extraordinarily Rapid Change of the Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal,” Nature, Vol. 374, 20 April 1995, pp. 687-692.
* Roger Lewin, 'Earth’s Field Flipping Fast,” New Scientist, Vol. 133, 25 January 1992, p. 26.
10. Quinn A. Blackburn, 'The Thorne Glacier Section of the Queen Maud Mountains,” The Geographical Review, Vol. 27, 1937, p. 610.
* Ernest Henry Shackleton, The Heart of the Antarctic, Vol. 2 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1909), p. 314.
* Stefi Weisburd, 'A Forest Grows in Antarctica,” Science News, Vol. 129, 8 March 1986, p. 148.
* Richard S. Lewis, A Continent for Science: The Antarctic Adventure (New York: Viking Press, 1965), p. 134.
11. Lewis, p. 130.
12. Canada’s Ellesmere Island, well inside the Arctic Circle, was warm enough throughout the year to sustain palm trees and other tropical flora and fauna. Daniel B. Kirk-Davidoff et al., 'On the Feedback of Stratospheric Clouds on Polar Climate,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, No.11, 15 June 2002, pp. 51-1.
* 'On eastern Axel Heiberg Island [in Canada], ... fossil forests are found. ... just 680 miles from the North Pole. The stumps of ancient trees are still rooted in the soil and leaf litter where they once grew. ... many trees reaching more than a hundred feet in height.” Jane E. Francis, 'Arctic Eden,” Natural History, Vol. 100, January 1991, pp. 57-58.
* Charles Felix, 'The Mummified Forests of the Canadian Arctic,” Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 29, March 1993, pp. 189-191.
13. Carl K. Seyfert and Leslie A. Sirkin, Earth History and Plate Tectonics, 2nd edition (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), p. 312.
14. 'Estimates vary widely, but most experts agree that marine gas hydrates collectively harbor twice as much carbon as do all known natural gas, crude oil and coal deposits on earth.” Erwin Suess et al., 'Flammable Ice,” Scientific American, Vol. 281, November 1999, pp. 76-83.
15. John Woodmorappe and Michael J. Oard, 'Field Studies in the Columbia River Basalt, North-West USA,” Technical Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2002, pp. 103-110.
16. Richard A. Kerr, 'Looking-Deeply-into the Earth’s Crust in Europe,” Science, Vol. 261, 16 July 1993, pp. 295-297.
* Richard A. Kerr, 'German Super-Deep Hole Hits Bottom,” Science, Vol. 266, 28 October 1994,p. 545.
* Richard Monastersky, 'Inner Space,” Science News, Vol. 136, 21 October 1989, pp. 266-268.
* Richard A. Kerr, 'Continental Drilling Heading Deeper,” Science, Vol. 224, 29 June 1984, p. 1418.
17. Yevgeny A. Kozlovsky, 'Kola Super-Deep: Interim Results and Prospects,” Episodes, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1982, pp. 9-11.
18. The geothermal gradient in continental regions far from volcanoes varies from 10- 60°C per kilometer.
19. Harvey Blatt, Sedimentary Petrology (New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1982), pp. 3, 6, 241.
20. In Norway, China, and Kazakhstan, tiny diamond grains have been found in nonvolcanic, metamorphosed, crustal rocks that were once sediments. [See Larissa F. Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 'Microdiamond in High-Grade Metamorphic Rocks of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway,” Geology, Vol. 23, No. 7, July 1995, pp. 597-600 and Richard Monastersky, 'Microscopic Diamonds Crack Geologic Mold,” Science News, Vol. 148, 8 July 1995, p. 22.]
21. John V. Walther and Philip M. Orville, 'Volatile Production and Transport in Regional Metamorphism,” Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 79, 1982, pp. 252-257.
22. George C. Kennedy, 'The Origin of Continents, Mountain Ranges, and Ocean Basins,” American Scientist, Vol. 47, December 1959, pp. 493-495.
23. Kenneth J. Hsu, The Mediterranean Was a Desert (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1983).
24. Barry Setterfield, 'An Investigation That Led to Unexpected Results by the Late Mr. G. F. Dodwell, B.A., F. R.A.S., South Australian government Astronomer, 1909-1952,” Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of South Australia Inc., September 1967.
25. 'Strikingly large concentrations of iridium were also observed, the ratio of iridium to aluminum being 17,000 times its value in Hawaiian basalt.” William H. Zoller et al., 'Iridium Enrichment in Airborne Particles from Kilauea Volcano: January 1983,” Science, Vol. 222, 9 December 1983, p. 1118.
* Charles Officer and Jake Page, The Great Dinosaur Extinction Controversy (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1996), pp. 110-124.
26. Ibid., pp. 98, 114-115, 117-121.
27. 'Taken together, our analyses indicate that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was a globally uniform event.” David M. Raup and David Jablonski, 'Geography of End-Cretaceous Marine Bivalve Extinctions,” Science, Vol. 260, 14 May 1993, p. 973.
28. Sometimes, the popular press has announced the discovery of craters that might explain the extinction of dinosaurs. After the initial fanfare, other discoveries were usually made which falsified the proposed impact site.
29. Officer and Page, pp. 151-156.
* Rex Dalton, 'Hot Tempers, Hard Core,” Nature, Vol. 425, 4 September 2003, pp. 13-14.
30. Water at the pressures existing in the subterranean chamber would only be in a solid state (ice) if the temperature was colder than -15°C. As explained on pages 282-284, the temperatures were much greater.
31. B. R. Lawn and T. R. Wilshaw, Fracture of Brittle Solids (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1975), pp. 91-100.
* Michel Bouchon and Martin Vallee, 'Observation of Long Supershear Rupture during the Magnitude 8.1 Kunlunshan Earthquake,” Science, Vol. 301, 8 August 2003, pp. 824-826.
32. Tensile cracks propagate at about half the velocity of sound in rock. [See the prior references.] The speed of sound in Precambrian granite is 5.23 km/sec. [Robert S. Carmichael, Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks, Vol. 2 (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1982), p. 310.] Using 6,371 kilometers as the mean radius of the earth, one end of the crack would circumscribe the globe in just over four hours.
Two ends moving in opposite directions along a wiggly path that approximates a great circle would require about half as much time, or just over two hours.
Of course, the pressure that ruptured the crust would begin dropping in the subterranean chamber immediately after the rupture began. This pressure drop would propagate through the liquid shell at the much slower velocity of sound in water.
33. Yes, the Mid-Oceanic Ridge encircles the earth, generally along a great-circle path. On maps showing details of the ocean floor, the Mid-Oceanic Ridge may seem to disappear along the northwest coast of North America. However, on a globe, if you place red dots where earthquakes occur, many dots will form a continuous red line along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge. That line goes under the northwest coast of North America. So the Ridge is hidden under California, western Canada, and Alaska. Pages 105-108 explain why North America overrode that segment of the Ridge.
34. The vibrating aspects of the hydroplates are explained on page 212. See 'flutter” and 'water hammers.”
35. Consider a semi-infinite hydroplate, settling at a rate R and overlying a water layer of thickness t. A water particle exactly below the center of the plate will not move, because it is 'undecided” whether to flow to the right or left. However, the farther a particle is from the center, the faster it will flow. A conservation of mass calculation shows that a typical water particle
a distance x from the plate’s center will move with a velocity of .
Figure 68: Water Flowing from under a Hydroplate.
Actually, the water’s maximum velocity under the hydroplate will be limited by several important factors: viscosity, obstacles from rubble that comprised the interconnected chambers (not shown), eroded sediments carried, and compressible flow considerations.
Because the water’s pressure drops in the direction of flow, edges of the hydroplate have less pressure support from below (blue vertical arrows in Figure 69). The plate will become concave downward. Flow below the plate will be in converging channels, and therefore, subsonic, until the edge of the plate is reached. This edge becomes the throat (shown in red) of a converging-diverging 'nozzle.” At this throat, velocity cannot exceed the sonic velocity, because pressure drops farther downstream cannot be felt upstream from the throat. As the plate settles toward the chamber floor, the throat’s area narrows, so the volume of water flowing out from under the plate sharply decreases. Consequently, the plate’s settling rate is reduced even more.
Figure 69: Subsonic-Supersonic Transition at Edge of Hydroplate.
At constrictions in the subterranean chamber, flow velocities and erosion will increase, so constrictions will tend to be removed. Because frictional drag on the horizontal flow increases as the plate approaches its basalt foundation, so will its sediment load per unit volume.
Once a water particle flows out from under the plate and begins to flow upward, it accelerates supersonically. Velocity and erosion from the upward expanding flow will increase as the top edge of the plate is approached. When the plate finally settles onto its basalt foundation, it will have a continental shelf and a continental slope. (Compare erosion patterns in Figure 70 with Figure 44 on page 95.)
Figure 70: Regions of Greatest Erosion. The water’s horizontal velocity and erosion power increase to the right. Because the water’s pressure decreases as it approaches the right edge, the hydroplate will sag downward, constricting the flow and increasing erosion even more. The bottom right of the hydroplate will, in effect, be beveled by the erosion, causing the top to incline downward. This process formed continental shelves and continental slopes around the world.
Twenhofel and Mead reported that the chemical composition of the earth’s sedimentary rock can bestbe matched by taking 65 parts of granite and 35 parts of basalt. [William H. Twenhofel, Treatise on Sedimentation, 2nd edition (New York: Dover Publications, 1961), pp. 2-3; W. J. Mead, 'The Average Igneous Rock,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 22, November-December, 1914, pp. 772-778.] This is a remarkable statement, because the quantities of what turns out to be ten minerals relate to only two parameters: an amount of granite and an amount of basalt. From the above, we can now see why this happens. For every 65 parts eroded above the subterranean chamber, 35 parts of basalt were eroded under the subterranean chamber. This produced almost all the earth’s sediments and sedimentary rock.
36. John Larsen, 'From Lignin to Coal in a Year,” Nature, Vol. 314, 28 March 1985, p. 316.
37. Compressed solids, liquids, and gases store energy. Springs are common examples. If a force, F, compresses some material by a small amount, D, the additional energy stored in the material is F x D. If the compressed material is rock, D will be small, but F will be huge. The product of the two could be very large. The compressed energy stored in the earth’s mantle and core is immense.
Just before the rupture, the strain energy in the crust would have been about 2 x 1029 ergs. The released compressive energy, as the Mid-Oceanic Ridge sprung upward, was about 1033 ergs. (This is explained beginning on page 106.) Only a small fraction of this energy was needed to form mountains. (A one-megaton hydrogen bomb releases about 5 x 1022 ergs of energy. Two of the most violent volcanic eruptions in modern times, Tambora in 1815 and Krakatoa in 1883, released about 8.4 x 1026 ergs and 1025 ergs, respectively.) [Gordon A. Macdonald, Volcanoes (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972), p. 60.]
38. As the Mid-Oceanic Ridge rose, its surface stretched in two perpendicular directions. Because rock is weak in tension, two types of cracks grew, each perpendicular to a direction of stretching. Both types of cracks are shown in Figures 41, 58f, 59, and 71.
Just as the tops of the coils of the spring are farther apart on page 106 in (c) than (a) or (b), so the surface of the ridge was stretched perpendicular to its axis. One can also feel this type of stretching by grabbing a phone book firmly in both hands and arching it. The outer, or convex, cover is placed in tension.
The other type of stretching was along the ridge axis. A circle’s circumference increases as its radius grows. Likewise, the entire length of the ridge’s crest was stretched as the ridge moved farther from the center of the earth.
Each type of crack began as a microscopic opening with stress concentrations at both ends. As the ridge rose, both types of cracks grew perpendicular to each other. Cracks along the ridge axis, called axial rifts, began at different locations along the ridge crest. Later, flank rifts, also parallel to the ridge axis, formed farther down the flanks of the ridge. Flank rifts formed after axial rifts because the greatest curvature, and therefore, greatest tension, occurs at the ridge crest. Rifts stopped growing when they ran into the perpendicular cracks called fracture zones. However, fracture zones never ran into rifts, because fracture zones always began at the crest, where the ridge was farthest from the center of the earth. (See A1-A3 in Figure 71.) Both types of cracks are still growing, although sporadically and at a much slower rate. This is due to cooling and thermal contraction, and it accounts for much earthquake activity along the ridge.
As the ridge rose, hundreds of short axial rifts began growing at different places along the rupture path. The more the ridge rose, the longer and wider these cracks became. This created a line of bending weakness which caused the ridge to rise symmetrically with the axial rift. In general, each axial rift did not align with the next axial rift, so segments of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge are offset from each other at fracture zones.
Figure 71: Growth of Two Types of Cracks along Mid-Oceanic Ridge. Figures A1-A3 illustrate the growth of fracture zones (shown in red) and the formation of the offset pattern all along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge. (Compare A3 with Figure 41 on page 95.) If no cracks form perpendicular to the rising ridge, as shown in B1-B3, the axial rifts will often grow past each other, forming overlapping spreading centers as shown in B3 and in Figure 43 on page 95.
Lengthening axial rifts also explain overlapping spreading centers (OSCs), where two portions of the ridge axis overlap. Macdonald and Fox, who first reported on OSCs, demonstrated how the overlaps occur. () They took a knife and made two parallel cuts in the top of a block of frozen wax-one cut ahead of the other. The block was then pulled perpendicular to both cuts, causing the cuts to grow toward each other. As the cracks grew past each other, their ends began turning toward the other crack. Sometimes they intersected. (See Figure 43 on page 95 and B1-B3 in Figure 71.) This suggests that OSCs were formed by lengthening axial rifts as the ridge rose. OSCs contradict the plate tectonic theory.
Another test of the hydroplate theory vs. the plate tectonic theory concerns the cross-sectional profile of fracture zones. The hydroplate theory says that fracture zones are tension cracks formed when the ridge suddenly rose and was stretched parallel to the ridge axis. The cracks grew from the surface downward. Consequently, their profile should be V-shaped or trough-shaped. [See Figure 72 (a).] Relatively shallow cracks will be V-shaped; deep cracks will be trough-shaped, because the pressure is so great at the base of the crack that the rock would flow as the sides of the crack are pulled apart. On the other hand, the plate tectonic theory says a fracture zone is a boundary between two adjacent plates moving relatively to each other. If so, the profile should look as shown in Figure 72 (b). These two predictions were jointly made on April 30, 1986 with the late Robert S. Dietz, one of the founders of the plate tectonic theory. Bob Dietz and I then set out to determine the actual shape of fracture zones.
Figure 72: Two Possible Cross-Sections of Fracture Zones. The caption in Figure 42 on page 95 explained why fracture zones have less mass along their length. Water-saturated sediments, shown in red and yellow layers in Figure (a) above, are much less dense than the crystalline rock below the ocean floor. Therefore, only Figure (a) explains the large mass deficiency along fracture zones.
The true profiles confirm the hydroplate prediction. [See Tjeerd H. van Andel et al., 'The Intersection between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Vema Fracture Zone in the North Atlantic,” Journal of Marine Research, Vol. 25, No. 3, 15 September 1967, pp. 343?351. See also A. A. Meyerhoff and Howard A. Meyerhoff, 'Tests of Plate Tectonics,” Plate Tectonics: Assessments and Reassessments, editor Charles F. Kahle, p. 108.] Dietz urged me to publish these results.
This exercise produced two other surprising confirmations of the hydroplate theory. First, the actual fracture zones were trough-shaped near the ridge axis where the fractures should be deepest. At the ends of fracture zones, the profiles were V-shaped. The second surprise was the presence of undeformed, layered sediments inside fracture zones. If the opposite sides of a fracture zone are sliding past each other, as plate tectonics claims, sediments caught between the sliding plates would be highly deformed.
Plate tectonic theory predicts and some textbooks claim that earthquakes in fracture zones occur only between the two offset ridge axes, where the plates, according to plate tectonics, are moving in opposite directions. To the contrary, earthquakes occur all along fracture zones, as the hydroplate theory predicts.
Also confirming the hydroplate explanation is the map on page 95 which shows that fracture zones lack mass. Figure 72 (a), not Figure 72 (b), fits this observation.
39. Basalt is highly magnetic because it contains magnetite and hematite. A magnetic material will lose its magnetism if its temperature exceeds a certain value, called the Curie point. The Curie point for basalt is near 578°C.
Figure 73: Curie Point under the Mid-Oceanic Ridge.